Kuzey Doğu Asya’daki Tehlikedeki Diller Raporu

  • 27 Aralık 2013 tarihinde, tarafından yazılmıştır.

UNESCO RED BOOK ON ENDANGERED LANGUAGES: NORTHEAST ASIA
Mustafa Altun’un paylaşımıdır: Kuzey Doğu Asya’daki Tehlikedeki Diller Raporu…Finlandiya’dan Juha Janhunen ve Tapani Salminen tarafından hazırlanmış. Son güncellemesi 1999 tarihi taşıyor. Raporda dillerle ilgili genel bilgiler ve kaynakça yer alıyor:

Raporda Yer Alan Dillerin Listesi:

Northern Mansi
Eastern Mansi
Western Mansi
Southern Mansi
Northern Khanty
Southern Khanty
Eastern Khanty
Nganasan
Tundra Enets
Forest Enets
Yurats
Tundra Nenet
Forest Nenets
Northern Selkup
Central Selkup
Southern Selkup
Kamas
Mator
Yakut-Dolgan
Khakas
Manchurian Kırgız
Chulym Tatar
Tuvan: Tofa
Tuvan Tsaatan
Khövsgöl Uryangkhai
Altai Uryangkhai
Southern Altai: Teleut
Shor
Siberian Tatar
Oirat: Manchurian Ölöt
Buryat: Eastern Buryat
Buryat: Western Buryat
Buryat: New Bargut

by Juha Janhunen (nearly all entries) and Tapani Salminen (two entries and general editing)
© Juha Janhunen and Tapani Salminen 1993–1999. All rights reserved. The report may be used for private study purposes, and for that use stored in electronic form. No part of the report may be printed, reproduced, or transmitted in any form without the prior consent of the authors.

Please read the background information and use the indexes for easier access.

Northern Mansi

Variant(s): Northern Man’si, (old generic name also covering Eastern, Southern, and Western Mansi:) Vogul; also known by the names of the main dialectal varieties, including: Sygva Mansi, Sosva Mansi, Ob Mansi, and Upper Loz’va Mansi
Geographical location: on the western tributaries to the lower Ob, mainly along the Sosva, and in the central and northern Ural mountains, within the forest zone; administratively mainly within the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District of Tyumen’ Oblast, Russia
Relationships: /Mansi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED
(a) children speakers: very few, if any
(b) mean age of youngest speakers: unknown, but mainly more than 40 years
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference
(d) total number of speakers: approx. 3,000; members of the ethnic group: approx. 7,000
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: often rudimentary, under strong interference from Russian, the principal language of the speakers; there is a written standard (in Cyrillic script), but its use is limited to school textbooks aiming at introducing the language of the older generation to the already Russianized children
Sources:
(i) information (about the language): Urmas BERECZKI: Sukupolvien kuilu nykypäivän obinugrilaisilla, Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 79, Helsinki 1984
(ii) published material (of the language): KÁLMÁN Béla: Chrestomathia Vogulica, Budapest 1976; there is a vast scholarly literature on all aspects of the language, both in Russian and in Western languages
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): László HONTI, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Remarks: Mansi is, with some justification, often considered to be a single language with four main groups of dialects; the linguistic differences within Mansi are, indeed, smaller than those within the otherwise comparable cases of Khanty, Selkup, and Ket (qq.v.); together with Khanty, Mansi is traditionally classified as forming the Ob-Ugrian branch of Ugrian, but the genetic basis of this classification remains questionable
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 28 Dec. 1993
Eastern Mansi

Variant(s): Eastern Man’si, (old generic name also covering Northern, Southern, and Western Mansi:) Vogul; also known by the names of the main dialectal varieties, including: Konda Mansi and Yukonda Mansi
Geographical location: in the basin of the river Konda, a western tributary to the lower Irtysh
Relationships: /Mansi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT
(a) children speakers: none
(b) mean age of youngest speakers: unknown, but hardly less than 60 years
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference
(d) total number of speakers: unknown, but hardly more than 500, possibly much less; members of the ethnic group: unknown, but hardly more than 1,000, possibly much less
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: mainly rudimentary, under strong interference from Russian, the principal language of the remaining speakers
Sources:
(i) information (about the language): László HONTI: Kriterien zur Klassifizierung der Dialekte des Wogulischen, Dialectologia Uralica, Wiesbaden 1985
(ii) published material (of the language): the idiom is relatively well documented, both in Russian and in Western languages
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): László HONTI, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Remarks:
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 28 Dec. 1993
Western Mansi

Variant(s): Western Man’si, (old generic name also covering Eastern, Northern, and Southern Mansi:) Vogul; also known by the names of the main dialectal varieties, including: Pelym Mansi, Middle and Lower Loz’va Mansi, and Vagil’sk Mansi
Geographical location: in the region of the source rivers of the Tavda, a tributary to the lower Tobol’-Irtysh
Relationships: /Mansi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: POSSIBLY EXTINCT [since the middle of the 20th century]
(a) children speakers: none
(b) mean age of youngest speakers:
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference in the past
(d) total number of speakers: [probably] 0; members of the ethnic group: very few
(e) degree of speakers’ competence:
Sources:
(i) information (about the language): —
(ii) published and unpublished material (of the language): —
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): László HONTI, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Remarks:
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 28 Dec. 1993
Southern Mansi

Variant(s): Southern Man’si, (old generic name also covering Eastern, Northern, and Western Mansi:) Vogul; also known by hydrographical association as: Tavda Mansi
Geographical location: in the region of the lower Tavda, a tributary to the lower Tobol’-Irtysh
Relationships: /Mansi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: EXTINCT since the middle of the 20th century
(a) children speakers: none
(b) mean age of youngest speakers:
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference in the past
(d) total number of speakers: 0; members of the ethnic group: very few
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: the language, as recorded from the last generations of speakers, reveals strong interference from Siberian Tatar (q.v.); the very last speakers seem to have adopted Russian, however
Sources:
(i) information (about the language) and (ii) published material (of the language): László HONTI; System der paradigmatischen Suffixmorpheme des wogulischen Dialektes an der Tawda, Budapest 1975
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): László HONTI, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Remarks:
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 28 Dec. 1993
Northern Khanty

Variant(s): Northern Khant or Khante, (old generic name also covering Eastern and Southern Khanty:) Ostyak, Ostiak, Ugrian Ostyak, not to be confused with Yenisei Ostyak or Ket (q.v.), nor with Ostyak Samoyed or Selkup (q.v.); also known by the names of the main dialectal varieties, including: Ob Khanty, Kazym Khanty, Berezovo Khanty, Sherkaly Khanty, and Nizyam Khanty
Geographical location: in the lower Ob basin and on its tributaries; administratively mainly within the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District of Tyumen’ Oblast, Russia
Relationships: /Khanty/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: ENDANGERED
(a) children speakers and (b) mean age of youngest speakers: Northern Khanty is reportedly still being used in many families as an idiom of internal communication, though Russian is universally learnt as the dominant language; native language skills are, however, often destroyed by the unifying boarding school system, operating in Russian only
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference
(d) total number of speakers: possibly more than 10,000; the total number of Khanty speakers is officially given as approx. 14,000, of whom a majority must be speakers of Northern Khanty; members of the ethnic group: possibly approx. 15,000, out of a total of approx. 22,000 for Khanty, in general
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: generally good, though under increasing interference from Russian; Northern Khanty itself is, however, far from a uniform language, and the dialectal varieties cannot be served by a single normative standard; separate written norms (in Cyrillic script) exist for some of the dialects, but they have very limited use
Sources:
(i) information (about the language) and (ii) published material (of the language): Károly RÉDEI: Northern Ostyak chrestomathy, Bloomington 1965; there is a vast scholarly literature on all aspects of the language, both in Russian and in Western languages
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): László HONTI, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Remarks: though often considered to be a single language, Khanty is actually a group of three mutually unintelligible conglomerations of dialects that may well be counted as separate languages; together with Mansi (q.v.), Khanty is traditionally classified as forming the Ob-Ugrian branch of Ugrian, but this classification is to be understood in an areal and historical, rather than in a genetic framework; a particularly close areal and typological affinity exists between Northern Khanty and Northern Mansi
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 28 Dec. 1993
Southern Khanty

Variant(s): Southern Khant or Khante, (old generic name also covering Eastern and Northern Khanty:) Ostyak, Ostiak, Ugrian Ostyak; also known by the names of the main dialectal varieties, including: Dem’yanka Khanty, Konda Khanty, and Irtysh Khanty
Geographical location: in the lower Irtysh basin and on its tributaries
Relationships: /Khanty/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: POSSIBLY EXTINCT
(a) children speakers: according to unconfirmed information there are no speakers left; in any case, the transmission of the language to children has ceased long ago
(b) mean age of youngest speakers:
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference
(d) total number of speakers: very few, possibly 0; members of the ethnic group: unknown, but probably less than 1,000, perhaps even close to 0
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: Southern Khanty used to be under strong interference not only from Russian, but also from Siberian Tatar (q.v.)
Sources:
(i) information (about the language): Erhard F. SCHIEFER: Kriterien zur Klassifizierung der Dialekte des Ostjakischen, Dialectologia Uralica, Wiesbaden 1985
(ii) published material (of the language): cf. the bibliography in HONTI László: Chrestomathia Ostiacica, Budapest 1984; although there is no reliable information about the current ethnic situation of the speakers of Southern Khanty and their descendants, the Southern Khanty language itself, like Eastern and Northern Khanty, is well documented in older sources, in both Russian and Western languages
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): László HONTI, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Remarks:
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 28 Dec. 1993
Eastern Khanty

Variant(s): Eastern Khant or Khante, (old generic name also covering Northern and Southern Khanty:) Ostyak, Ostiak, Ugrian Ostyak; also known by the names of the main dialectal varieties, including: Vakh-Vasyugan Khanty, Salym Khanty, and Surgut Khanty
Geographical location: along the western and eastern tributaries to the middle Ob, from the Vasyugan to the Pim
Relationships: /Khanty/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED
(a) children speakers: probably none
(b) mean age of youngest speakers: unknown, but hardly less than 40 years
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference
(d) total number of speakers: unknown, but hardly more than 1,000, possibly much less; members of the ethnic group: unknown, but hardly more than 5,000, possibly much less
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: mainly rudimentary, under strong interference from Russian, the principal language of the remaining speakers; there is also some traditional bilingualism between Eastern Khanty and Central Selkup (q.v.)
Sources:
(i) information (about the language) and (ii) published material (of the language): János GULYA: Eastern Ostyak chrestomathy, Bloomington 1966; there is a vast scholarly literature on all aspects of the language, both in Russian and in Western languages
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): László HONTI, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Remarks:
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 28 Dec. 1993
Nganasan

Variant(s): Tavgi, Tavgi Samoyed, Avam Samoyed
Geographical location: the northernmost language of the Eurasian continent; on central Taimyr, in the regions of the Pyasina and Taimyra river systems, within the Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) Autonomous District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia; in two main groups (western and eastern), corresponding to a slight dialectal difference
Relationships: /Samoyed/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED
(a) children speakers and (b) mean age of youngest speakers: very few, if any; generally, only individuals aged 40 or more are fully fluent in the language
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference
(d) total number of speakers: according to official census data, the Nganasan ethnic group has the highest native language retaining rate (approx. 85 per cent) among the 26 so-called “Peoples of the Far North” in Russia, which would give approx. 1,000 native speakers; according to inofficial field data, however, the rate is much lower, and a cautious estimate would give no more 500 native speakers; members of the ethnic group: approx. 1,300
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: there are still a few old speakers with little knowledge of Russian, or with a knowledge of a special Russian-based Taimyr pidgin only; middle-aged and younger speakers are, however, fully bilingual in Russian, with inevitable traces of Russian interference in native language use; some knowledge of Yakut: Dolgan (q.v.) is also common
Sources:
(i) information (about the language) and (ii) published material (of the language): N. M. TERESHHENKO: Nganasanskij jazyk, Leningrad 1979
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): Eugene HELIMSKI (XELIMSKIJ), Russian University of Humanities, Moscow, Russia
Remarks: together with Nenets and Enets (qq.v.) often considered to constitute a special subbranch termed Northern Samoyed
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 26 Dec. 1993
Tundra Enets

Variant(s): Somatu, Madu, (historical names:) Turukhan Samoyed, Khantai or Chantai Samoyed, (old generic name also covering Forest Enets:) Yenisei Samoyed
Geographical location: in the tundra zone on the lower Yenisei, within the Ust’-Yenisei raion of the Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) Autonomous District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia; with a historical movement towards the north comparable to that of Forest Enets (q.v.)
Relationships: /Enets/Samoyed/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT
(a) children speakers: none
(b) mean age of youngest speakers: from 40 years up
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference
(d) total number of speakers: less than 50, possibly only a few; members of the ethnic group: approx. 100
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: possibly only rudimentary; the last speakers are bilingual in Russian, but there may also be individuals with a knowledge of Nganasan (q.v.)
Sources:
(i) information (about the language): Eugene HELIMSKI: Die Feststellung der dialektalen Zugehörigkeit der enzischen Materialien, Dialectologia Uralica, Wiesbaden 1985
(ii) published material (of the language): there are no special publications of Tundra Enets material, but the idiom is covered to some extent by many general works on Enets and Samoyed, e.g. Michael KATZSCHMANN & János PUSZTAY: Jenissei-samojedisches (Enzisches) Wörterbuch, Hamburg 1978
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): Eugene HELIMSKI (XELIMSKIJ), Russian University of Humanities, Moscow, Russia
Remarks: on the taxonomy within Samoyed, cf. Forest Enets
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 26 Dec. 1993
Forest Enets

Variant(s): Bai, (historical names:) Mangazeia Samoyed, Baikha or Baicha Samoyed, Karasina Samoyed, (old generic name also covering Tundra Enets:) Yenisei Samoyed
Geographical location: in the forest zone on the lower Yenisei, within the Dudinka raion of the Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) Autonomous District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia; historically, the speakers of the idiom have gradually moved towards the north along the Yenisei basin; this movement has during the last 150 years involved a distance of approx. 500 kms
Relationships: /Enets/Samoyed/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT
(a) children speakers: none
(b) mean age of youngest speakers: from 40 years up
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference
(d) total number of speakers: less than 50, possibly only a few; members of the ethnic group: approx. 100
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: the last speakers are mainly trilingual, speaking also Russian and Tundra Nenets; interference from the latter two languages tends to influence what is left of native language skills in Forest Enets
Sources:
(i) information (about the language) and (ii) published material (of the language): N. M. TERESHHENKO: Eneckij jazyk, Jazyki mira: ural’skie jazyki, Moskva 1993
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): Eugene HELIMSKI (XELIMSKIJ), Russian University of Humanities, Moscow, Russia
Remarks: Forest Enets and Tundra Enets are officially counted as dialects of a single language, but they have a number of fundamental differences; areally, Forest Enets reveals an orientation towards Nenets (q.v.), while Tundra Enets adheres to Nganasan (q.v.); together with Nenets and Nganasan, the idioms of the Enets group are often considered to constitute a special subbranch termed Northern Samoyed
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 26 Dec. 1993
Yurats

Variant(s): Yurak, (Russian:) Jurackij; the appellation Yurak has historically also been used for Nenets, with which Yurats in the technical sense is not to be confused
Geographical location: in the tundra zone to the west of the lower Yenisei
Relationships: /Samoyed/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: EXTINCT since the early 19th century
(a) children speakers: none
(b) mean age of youngest speakers:
(c) distribution by sex: no known difference in the past
(d) total number of speakers: 0; members of the ethnic group: 0; it seems that Yurats was absorbed by Tundra Nenets, which had a period of eastward expansion in the 18th and 19th centuries; the eastern groups of the modern Tundra Nenets speakers may therefore be considered to have been formed upon a Yurats substrate
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: the idiom, as recorded in the historical sources, had already undergone strong areal influence of Tundra Nenets
Sources:
(i) information (about the language): Evgenij XELIMSKIJ: Ob odnom perexodnom severnosamodijskom dialekte (K istoricheskoj dialektologii neneckogo jazyka), Proisxozhdenie aborigenov Sibiri i ix jazykov 3, Tomsk 1976
(ii) published material (of the language): only very limited 18th century lexicological sorces
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): Eugene HELIMSKI (XELIMSKIJ), Russian University of Humanities, Moscow, Russia
Remarks: [possibly] an archaic member of the Enets group; areally, Yurats occupies a position transitional between Enets and Nenets; although it has also been classified as an aberrant dialect of Nenets, its primary diagnostic features are common with Enets
Compiler: Dr. Juha Janhunen, Helsinki, 26 Dec. 1993
Tundra Nenets

Variant(s): (for Nenets) Yurak (derogatory), Samoyed (obsolete)
Geographical location: the Russian Federation: Europe: Nenets District, the Kolguev Island, a part of Mezen’ County, and formerly the Novaya Zemlya Islands of Arkhangel’sk Province, extending to Komi Republic; Siberia: Yamal Nenets District, excluding southwestern and southeastern corners, of Tyumen’ Province; western Taymyr District of Krasnoyarsk Region
Relationships: /Nenets/Samoyed/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: ENDANGERED
(a) children speakers: in Siberia, many children learn the language, but some of them cease to use it throughout the school years; on the European side, very few children learn the language
(b) mean age of youngest speakers: on the European side, possibly 20
(c) distribution by sex:
(d) total number of speakers, members of the ethnic group: approx. 25,000 speakers; cf. combined 26,730 speakers in the 1989 Soviet census for the two Nenets languages
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: practically all elderly and middle-aged people are fully competent; in Siberia, most young people are also fully competent, but on the European side young people tend to be less competent and prefer Russian
Sources:
(i) information (about the language): N. M. Tereshchenko: Neneckij jazyk. Jazyki mira: ural’skie jazyki. Moskva 1993. 326–343.
(ii) published and unpublished material (of the language): quite a lot
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): Tapani Salminen, University of Helsinki, Finland
Remarks:
Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec. 1993
Forest Nenets

Variant(s): (for Nenets) Yurak (derogatory), Samoyed (obsolete)
Geographical location: the Russian Federation: Siberia: Pur County of Yamal Nenets District of Tyumen’ Province, extending to adjacent counties and Khanty Mansi District
Relationships: /Nenets/Samoyed/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)
Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED
(a) children speakers: a few children learn the language, but most cease to use it throughout the school years
(b) mean age of youngest speakers:
(c) distribution by sex:
(d) total number of speakers, members of the ethnic group: approx. 1,500 speakers; cf. Tundra Nenets
(e) degree of speakers’ competence: older generations fully competent; middle-aged people usually fully competent, but some individuals exhibit strong Khanty or Russian influence; among younger people, many individuals are less competent and prefer Russian
Sources:
(i) information (about the language): Pekka Sammallahti: Material from Forest Nenets. Helsinki 1973.
(ii) published and unpublished material (of the language): a little
(iii) competent scholar(s) and institution(s): Tapani Salminen, University of Helsinki, Finland
Remarks:
Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec. 1993

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